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Iridology is a diagnostic tool and practice that studies the markings and changes in the iris of the eye which is used to help identify both inherent genetic weaknesses as well as health problems within the body, and can help identify the underlying cause of diseases. This is sometimes used as part of the naturopathic consultation.

Iridologists can use simple equipment such as a magnifying glass and flashlight, or slit-lamp microscopes or sophisticated cameras and computer programs to examine a patient's irises for tissue changes. The markings and patterns are compared to an iris chart that correlates zones of the iris with parts of the body. Typical charts divide the iris into approximately 80-90 zones. For example, the zone corresponding to the kidney is in the lower part of the iris, just before 6 o'clock.

It is understood that every part in the body has a neural link where nerves from that part go to the brain. Additionally these also follow from the brain to the iris which we see as nerve fibers in the iris. Details in the iris reflect changes in the tissues of the corresponding body organs. One well-known practitioner, Dr. Bernard Jensen, puts it this way: "Nerve fibers in the iris respond to changes in body tissues by manifesting a reflex physiology that corresponds to specific tissue changes and locations." (Jensen B; "Iridology Simplified". 2nd ed., Escondido of the iris).